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Global Inequalities: Kiribati: UN Sustainable Development Goals

Resources to support the study of global inequalities in the least developed countries.

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SDG 1: No Poverty

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

  • More than 700 million people, or 10% of the world population, still live in extreme poverty. Surviving on less than US$1.90 a day.
  • Having a job does not guarantee a decent living. In fact, 8 per cent of employed workers and their families worldwide lived in extreme poverty in 2018.
  • Globally, there are 122 women aged 25 to 34 living in extreme poverty for every 100 men of the same age group.
  • The majority of people living on less than $1.90 a day live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries.
  • Poverty affects children disproportionately. One out of five children live in extreme poverty.
  • As of 2018, 55% of the world’s population have no access to social protection.
  • In 2018, only 41% of women giving birth received maternity cash benefits.

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SDG 2: Zero Hunger

Zero Hunger

  • An estimated 821 million people were undernourished in 2017.
  • The majority of the world’s hungry people live in developing countries, where 12.9 per cent of the population is undernourished.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with the highest prevalence of hunger, with the rate increasing from 20.7 per cent in 2014 to 23.2 per cent in 2017.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of undernourished people increased from 195 million in 2014 to 237 million in 2017.
  • Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 per cent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.
  • 149 million children under 5 years of age—22 per cent of the global under-5 population—were still chronically undernourished in 2018.

Food security

  • Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households.
  • 500 million small farms worldwide, most still rainfed, provide up to 80 per cent of food consumed in a large part of the developing world. Investing in smallholder women and men is an important way to increase food security and nutrition for the poorest, as well as food production for local and global markets.
  • Since the 1900s, some 75 per cent of crop diversity has been lost from farmers’ fields. Better use of agricultural biodiversity can contribute to more nutritious diets, enhanced livelihoods for farming communities and more resilient and sustainable farming systems.
  • If women farmers had the same access to resources as men, the number of hungry in the world could be reduced by up to 150 million.
  • 840 million people have no access to electricity worldwide – most of whom live in rural areas of the developing world. Energy poverty in many regions is a fundamental barrier to reducing hunger and ensuring that the world can produce enough food to meet future demand.

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SDG 3: Good health and Well-Being

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Child health

  • 17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990, but more than five million children still die before their fifth birthday each year.
  • Since 2000, measles vaccines have averted nearly 15.6 million deaths.
  • Despite determined global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions.
  • Children born into poverty are almost twice as likely to die before the age of five as those from wealthier families.
  • Children of educated mothers—even mothers with only primary schooling—are more likely to survive than children of mothers with no education.

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SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation

Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

  • 1 in 4 health care facilities lacks basic water services
  • 3 in 10 people lack access to safely managed drinking water services and 6 in 10 people lack access to safely managed sanitation facilities.
  • At least 892 million people continue to practice open defecation.
  • Women and girls are responsible for water collection in 80 per cent of households without access to water on premises.
  • Between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of the global population using an improved drinking water source has increased from 76 per cent to 90 per cent
  • Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise. Over 1.7 billion people are currently living in river basins where water use exceeds recharge.
  • 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines
  • More than 80 per cent of wastewater resulting from human activities is discharged into rivers or sea without any pollution removal
  • Each day, nearly 1,000 children die due to preventable water and sanitation-related diarrheal diseases
  • Approximately 70 per cent of all water abstracted from rivers, lakes and aquifers is used for irrigation
  • Floods and other water-related disasters account for 70 per cent of all deaths related to natural disasters

Access the link below to read about the targets set.

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SDG 4: Quality Education

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 

  • Enrolment in primary education in developing countries has reached 91 per cent but 57 million primary age children remain out of school.
  • More than half of children that have not enrolled in school live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • An estimated 50 per cent of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas.
  • 617 million youth worldwide lack basic mathematics and literacy skills.

Access the link below to read about the targets set.

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SDG 5: Gender Equality

Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

  • Globally, 750 million women and girls were married before the age of 18 and at least 200 million women and girls in 30 countries have undergone FGM.
  • The rates of girls between 15-19 who are subjected to FGM (female genital mutilation) in the 30 countries where the practice is concentrated have dropped from 1 in 2 girls in 2000 to 1 in 3 girls by 2017.
  • In 18 countries, husbands can legally prevent their wives from working; in 39 countries, daughters and sons do not have equal inheritance rights; and 49 countries lack laws protecting women from domestic violence.
  • One in five women and girls, including 19 per cent of women and girls aged 15 to 49, have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner within the last 12 months. Yet, 49 countries have no laws that specifically protect women from such violence.
  • While women have made important inroads into political office across the world, their representation in national parliaments at 23.7 per cent is still far from parity.
  • In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 per cent of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber.
  • Only 52 per cent of women married or in a union freely make their own decisions about sexual relations, contraceptive use and health care.
  • Globally, women are just 13 per cent of agricultural land holders.
  • Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector. The proportion of women in paid employment outside the agriculture sector has increased from 35 per cent in 1990 to 41 per cent in 2015.
  • More than 100 countries have taken action to track budget allocations for gender equality.
  • In Southern Asia, a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood has dropped by over 40% since 2000.

Access the link below to read about the targets set.

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