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Britannica: Ethical relativism
This article explains the concept with examples from philosophers and outlines arguments against.
Anthropologists point to a range of practices considered morally acceptable in some societies but condemned in others, including infanticide, genocide, polygamy, racism, sexism, and torture. Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste." Differences in moral practices across cultures raise an important issue in ethics -- the concept of "ethical relativism."
What does ethical relativism say about ethics and morality?
BBC news: What is relativism?
Shortly before he was elected pope, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger delivered a withering denunciation of relativism. For those unfamiliar with even the blunter points of philosophy, what was he driving at?
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philiosophy
Relativism has been, in its various guises, both one of the most popular and most reviled philosophical doctrines of our time
Sacramento State: Ethical Relativism
Ethical relativism is the theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture. That is, whether an action is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced.
Introduction to subjectivism
Many forms of subjectivism go a bit further and teach that moral statements describe how the speaker feels about a particular ethical issue.
Moral statements are just factual statements about the attitude the speaker holds on a particular issue
So if I say "Lying is wrong", all I'm doing is telling you that I disapprove of telling lies
BBC: Ethics: a basic introduction
At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives.
Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy.
The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or disposition.
Scan this page for a basic introduction to: relativism, situation ethics, subjectivism and absolutism.
BBC site explains in simple terms, situation ethics and provides examples and arguments for and against.
What does moral absolutism say about ethics and morality?
Moral absolutism is the belief that there exists an absolute, unbreakable, universal foundation for moral behavior. The theory does not state what that foundation is, and it does not infer that every law and rule is absolute and universal.
Deontology and Ethics: What is Deontology, Deontological Ethics?
Deontological moral systems are characterized by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. To make the correct moral choices, we have to understand what our moral duties are and what correct rules exist to regulate those duties.
Moral Absolutism is the ethical belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, regardless of the context of the act.
Act and Rule Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce.
Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher and political radical. He is primarily known today for his moral philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences.
From the BBC: Consequentialism is based on two principles:
Whether an act is right or wrong depends only on the results of that act
The more good consequences an act produces, the better or more right that act
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: consequentialism
An act is right if and only if it causes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.”